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Future Events

August, 2022

Wednesday
10
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All are invited to the League of Women Voters of Collin County Book Club! On August 10 6:30-7:30pm, we will meet on Zoom to discuss "Our Unfinished March: The Violent Past and Imperiled Future of the Vote--A History, a Crisis, a Plan:" by Erick Holder & Sam Koppelman. We will share our thoughts on the book as well as various discussion questions.
Saturday
13
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Join us in celebrating the birthday of Lucy Stone. Lucy was a leading suffragist who dedicated her life to fighting inequality. She was the first Massachusetts woman to earn a college degree. Lucy organized the first National Women’s Rights Convention in Worcester, Massachusetts, and she was a founding member of the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), which would later merge with the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) in 1890. After the ratification of the 19th Amendment, the NAWSA evolved into the League of Women Voters (LWV) in 1920.

Learn more:

-- NWHM: https://www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/lucy-stone

-- Video: https://www.pbs.org/video/the-vote-part-1-3kph5d

-- History: https://www.loc.gov/resource/rbnawsa.n8361/?sp=7 (p. 7)
Wednesday
17
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Join us in celebrating the birthday of Charlotte Forten Grimké. Charlotte was a 3rd-generation suffragist and equal rights advocate. She is a reminder that we make progress by standing on the shoulders of others, and that it can take multiple generations to right wrongs.

** Granddaughter of Charlotte Vandine Forten **

** Daughter of Robert Bridges Forten **

** Niece of Margaret, Harriet, and Sarah Forten **

Learn more:

-- National History Center: http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/maai/identity/text3/charlottefortenjournal.pdf

-- Suffragist Memorial: https://suffragistmemorial.org/african-american-women-leaders-in-the-suffrage-movement

-- PBS: https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3p477.html

-- NPS (19th Amendment): https://www.nps.gov/articles/african-american-women-and-the-nineteenth-amendment.htm

-- NPS (Voting Rights): https://www.nps.gov/articles/black-women-and-the-fight-for-voting-rights.htm
-- Journals of Charlotte Forten Grimke: https://www.google.com/books/edition/_/3uHylBU24jMC?hl=en&gbpv=1&pg=PP1

-- Muse: https://muse.jhu.edu/chapter/1945821

-- Beltway Poetry: http://www.beltwaypoetry.com/poetry/poets/names/grimke-charlotte-forten/
Wednesday
17
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Contact lwvcollin@gmail.com for the board meeting Zoom link.
Thursday
18
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#OnThisDay, 1920 the 19th Amendment was ratified, granting women the right to vote. This amendment prohibits the states and the federal government from denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States on the basis of sex. The ratification was the culmination of the women‘s suffrage movement in the United States, which fought at both state and national levels to achieve the vote.

The amendment was passed by Congress (proposed) on June 4, 1919, and ratified on August 18, 1920.

Learn more:

-- National Women’s History Museum: http://www.crusadeforthevote.org/19-amendment

-- National Archive: https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/amendments-11-27
Friday
19
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Join us in celebrating the birthday of Annie Webb Blanton, teacher, suffragist, and the first woman in Texas elected to statewide office, was born Aug 19, 1870, in Houston.

In the July 1918 primary, when Texas women exercised their voting rights for the first time, Blanton defeated incumbent Walter F. Doughty and Brandon Trussell by a large margin. In November, her victory in the general election made her the first woman in Texas elected to statewide office. She served as state superintendent through 1922.

Learn more:
-- TSHA: https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fbl16
-- Humanities Texas https://www.humanitiestexas.org/programs/tx-originals/list/annie-webb-blanton
Saturday
20
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The League of Women Voters of Collin County is excited to celebrate Women‘s Equality Day and to share with you plans for the upcoming year. You are invited to check in with us in the private dining room at Spring Creek Barbeque (3623 Preston Rd, Frisco, TX 75034) on Saturday, August 20 at 11:00. After checking in you can go through the line and buy your lunch. The program will begin about 12:15 and end by 1:00. You are welcome to bring a guest. Register by August 18. Members, remember to log on before you register.
Friday
26
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The 19th amendment, in which women gained the right to vote, was certified on August 26, 1920.
Friday
26
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"The 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote nationally on August 18, 1920, so why is Women’s Equality Day on August 26th each year?

The simple answer is that even when a constitutional amendment has been ratified it’s not official until it has been certified by the correct government official. In 1920, that official was U.S. Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby. On August 26, 1920, Colby signed a proclamation behind closed doors at 8 a.m. at his own house in Washington, D.C, ending a struggle for the vote that started a century earlier." -- Constitution Center

The first executive secretary of the League of Women Voters, Minnie Fisher Cunningham, was a Texan who, among many other notable achievements, worked for the passage of the 19th Amendment in Texas and nationally.

Learn more:

-- Alice Paul Org: https://www.alicepaul.org/2020-exhibition/

-- Constitution Center: https://constitutioncenter.org/blog/why-august-26-is-known-as-womans-equality-day

-- LOC: https://www.loc.gov/collections/women-of-protest/articles-and-essays/tactics-and-techniques-of-the-national-womans-party-suffrage-campaign/

-- NCSL: https://www.ncsl.org/research/about-state-legislatures/amending-the-u-s-constitution.aspx

Image: https://www.alicepaul.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/5_Suffragist_Cover_1920.pdf
Saturday
27
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#OnThisDay in 1962, the 24th Amendment, which prohibited the use or a poll tax as a condition for voting in federal elections, was passed by Congress. #SystemicRacism

The amendment was passed by Congress (proposed) to the states on August 27, 1962, and ratified on January 23, 1964.

“After nearly disappearing in the states, a repurposed poll tax returned as part of a successful effort to undermine the Fifteenth Amendment and reestablish limits on the franchise. Beginning in Florida in 1889, all the former Confederate States, and a few others, instituted a suite of changes to voting laws as a part of this effort. They introduced literacy tests and disqualified convicted felons from voting. They also resurrected poll taxes. The historical record is filled with racially derogatory statements from delegates at State constitutional conventions who believed poll taxes and other devices would suppress Black voter registration and turnout.”

“The Supreme Court repeatedly affirmed the constitutionality of poll taxes. In its 1937 opinion in Breedlove v. Suttles, the Supreme Court unanimously rejected a claim from a white Georgia voter that the poll tax violated the Equal Protection Clause. In 1951, it rejected a similar claim challenging Virginia’s poll tax in Butler v. Thompson.” -- Constitution Center #CheckAndBalances #3Branches

Resources:

-- Constitution Center: https://constitutioncenter.org/interactive-constitution/amendment/amendment-xxiv

-- National Archive: https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/amendments-11-27

-- US House: https://history.house.gov/HistoricalHighlight/Detail/37045

-- Breedlove v. Suttles: https://perma.cc/6G6H-6U4T

-- Butler v. Thompson: https://perma.cc/V4JP-TYHY
Sunday
28
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#OnThisDay in 1963, approximately 250,000 people took part in The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Martin Luther King gave the closing address in front of the Lincoln Memorial:

“I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal."

Learn more:

-- King Institute: https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/king-papers/documents/i-have-dream-address-delivered-march-washington-jobs-and-freedom

-- Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=173&v=smEqnnklfYs&feature=emb_logo

-- Constitution Center: https://constitutioncenter.org/blog/10-fascinating-facts-about-the-i-have-a-dream-speech

-- Civil Rights Library: http://crdl.usg.edu/events/march_on_washington
Monday
29
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#OnThisDay in 1983, the 68th Texas legislature passed HB718, which abolished the life-time voting ban on ex-felons, but included a 5-yr waiting period before ex-felons would become eligible to vote.

On Sept 1, 1997, the 75th Texas legislature passed HB1001 eliminated the 5-yr waiting period.

Learn more:

-- TSLL: https://guides.sll.texas.gov/reentry-resources/voting

-- 75th #TXLege Summary: https://lrl.texas.gov/scanned/Sessionoverviews/summary/75soe.pdf#page=114 (pg. 114)

-- 68th #TXLege Summary: https://lrl.texas.gov/scanned/sessionOverviews/summary/soe68.pdf#page=82 (pg. 77)

-- HB1001 Text: https://lrl.texas.gov/LASDOCS/75R/HB1001/HB1001_75R.pdf

-- HB718 Text: https://lrl.texas.gov/LASDOCS/68R/HB718/HB718_68R.pdf#page=23 (pg. 23)

-- HB718 Election Law Opinion: https://www.sos.state.tx.us/elections/elo/jwf20.pdf

-- JSTOR: https://www.jstor.org/stable/29768353?read-now=1&seq=4#page_scan_tab_contents (pg. 82)
Tuesday
30
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Join us in celebrating the birthday of Myra Davis Hemmings. Hemmings was born in Gonzales, Texas. She was one of the founders of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. as well as its first president. The sorority was founded at Howard University in Jan 1913 and its 1st public act was to participate in the Woman Suffrage Procession in Washington, D.C. in Mar of 1913.

Suffragist Mary Church Terrell lobbied on behalf of the Deltas to win them a place in the parade, where they were the only African American organization represented. #HiddenFigures

A Texas Historical Marker dedicated to Myra resides at the Myra Davis Hemmings Resource Center in Bexar County, TX.

Photo credit: San Antonio Alumnae Chapter of the Delta Sigma Theta Sorority.

Learn More:

-- @usgpo: https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CREC-2013-01-24/html/CREC-2013-01-24-pt1-PgS292.htm

-- @TxHistComm: https://atlas.thc.texas.gov/Details/5507017358/print

-- @TxStHistAssoc: https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fhe64

-- @dstinc1913: https://www.deltasigmatheta.org
Wednesday
31
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Join us in celebrating the birthday of Lulu Belle Madison White. Lulu Belle was a civil rights activist who worked to eliminate the white primary in the 1930s. In 1939, she became the president of the Houston chapter of the NAACP. After the SCOTUS ruling in 1944 that outlawed the white primary (Smith v. Allwright), she worked tirelessly to encourage voting and educate voters.

Learn more:

-- TSHA Handbook: https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fwh75

-- TSHA Honest Past (p. 337): https://join.tshaonline.org/ebook-offers/honest-past/SHQ-An-Honest-Past.pdf

-- WTH: https://www.womenintexashistory.org/audio/lulu-belle-madison-white

-- Humanities of TX: https://www.humanitiestexas.org/news/articles/craft-civil-rights

September, 2022

Thursday
1
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Join us in celebrating the birthday of Ann Richards. In 1976, Ann became the 1st woman elected to the Travis County Commissioners Court. In 1982, Ann became the 1st woman elected as Texas State Treasurer, which was the 1st time a woman had been elected to statewide office in Texas since Miriam Ferguson‘s successful gubernatorial race in 1932--breaking a 50-yr absence of women in statewide leadership. In 1990, Ann became the 2nd woman to serve as governor of Texas since Texas became a state in 1845.

Learn more:
-- https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fri62
Thursday
1
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#OnThisDay in 1997, the 75th TX legislature, passed HB1001, which amended the Election Code to clarify the voting rights (eligibility) of fully discharged ex-felons, and it eliminated the 5-year waiting period established by HB718.

In 1983, the 68th Session of the TX Leg passed HB718, which abolished the life-time voting ban on ex-felons, but included a 5-year waiting period before ex-felons would become eligible to vote.

Learn more:

-- TXSLL: https://guides.sll.texas.gov/reentry-resources/voting

-- TXSOS: https://www.sos.state.tx.us/elections/elo/jwf20.pdf

-- 75th #TXLege Summary: https://lrl.texas.gov/scanned/Sessionoverviews/summary/75soe.pdf#page=114 (pg. 114)

-- 68th #TXLege Summary: https://lrl.texas.gov/scanned/sessionOverviews/summary/soe68.pdf#page=82 (pg. 77)

-- HB1001 Text: https://lrl.texas.gov/LASDOCS/75R/HB1001/HB1001_75R.pdf

-- HB718 Text: https://lrl.texas.gov/LASDOCS/68R/HB718/HB718_68R.pdf#page=23 (pg. 23)

-- HB718 Election Law Opinion: https://www.sos.state.tx.us/elections/elo/jwf20.pdf

-- JSTOR: https://www.jstor.org/stable/29768353?read-now=1&seq=4#page_scan_tab_contents (pg. 82)
Thursday
1
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Contact lwvcollin@gmail.com for the board meeting Zoom link.
Friday
2
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This Labor Day we’re recognizing the contributions of laborers by taking a look back at the impact of labor unions on the women’s suffrage movement.

Did you know that middle and upper-class suffragists learned to use parades and picketing from working-class suffragists who were members of labor unions?

“Since the beginning of the women’s rights movement, women who devoted their lives to reform often were middle and upper-class women. Women who worked to support themselves and their families had less time and funds to devote to social movements.

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, however, working women began supporting suffrage in greater numbers. They joined labor unions, held strikes for higher pay, and protested for better working conditions. Working women started seeing the vote as a way to gain more political power to further these causes.

Harriot Stanton Blatch, daughter of suffrage leader Elizabeth Cady Stanton, was among the first suffragists to recruit working women to support suffrage. She started collaborating with the Women’s Trade Union League, founded in 1905, to help women form unions and advocate for labor reforms. In 1907, she founded the Equality League of Self-Supporting Women (later called the Women’s Political Union) to attract working women to the suffrage movement. Blatch also wanted to integrate the more aggressive, militant tactics of labor activists—like parades through city streets and speakers on street corners—into the suffrage strategies to attract more publicity. Working women and their experience with the tactics of labor activists proved vital to winning the vote.” Allison Lange, Ph.D. https://www.loc.gov/resource/ggbain.02144/

Learn more:

-- Crusade for the Vote: http://www.crusadeforthevote.org/working-women-movement

-- LOC: https://www.loc.gov/static/collections/women-of-protest/images/tactics.pdf

-- DOL: https://www.dol.gov/general/laborday/history
Wednesday
7
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JJoin us in celebrating the birthday of Jovita Idár. Idarwas born in 1885 and was an American journalist and civil rights activist who wrote about the challenges Mexican Americans faced in Texas. Her activism was influenced by the lynching of ethnic-Mexican men in South Texas during the early 20th century. She also used her platform as a journalist to support suffrage.

Learn more:

-- PBS (Unladylike): https://unladylike2020.com/profile/jovita-idar

-- TXWF: https://www.txwf.org/champions-for-change-jovita-idar-and-the-villareal-sisters/

-- Women‘s History: https://www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/jovita-idar

-- TSHA Handbook: https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fid03

-- TSHA Honest Past (p. 196): https://join.tshaonline.org/ebook-offers/honest-past/SHQ-An-Honest-Past.pdf

-- Humanities of Texas: https://www.humanitiestexas.org/programs/tx-originals/list/jovita-idar

-- Hidden Figures: https://www.brandywine.org/museum/hidden-figures-suffrage-movement


Photo Credit: General Photographs, UTSA Special Collections (@UTSA)
Friday
9
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#OnThisDay, Eisenhower signed the Civil Rights Act (CRA) of 1957 into law. The act established the Civil Rights Section of the Justice Department and empowered federal prosecutors to obtain court injunctions against interference with the right to vote. #CivilRights #VotingRights

This was the 1st civil rights legislation since Reconstruction (1875).

Timeline:

-- 1866 Johnson vetos CRA of 1866, but veto is overridden by Congress (define citizenship and guaranteed citizens equal protection)

-- 1875 Grant signs CRA of 1875 (guaranteed African Americans equal treatment in public accommodations, public transportation, and prohibited their exclusion from jury service)

-- 1883 SCOTUS rules 7-1 that CRA of 1875 is unconstitutional

-- 1957 Eisenhower signs CRA of 1957 (forms the Civil Rights Commission)

-- 1960 Eisenhower signs CRA of 1960 (guaranteed qualified voters the right to register to vote

-- 1964 Johnson signs CRA of 1964 (prohibited discrimination in public accommodations and employment)

-- 1968 Johnson signs CRA of 1968 (guaranteed equal housing opportunities)

-- 1991 Bush signs the CRA of 1991 (expanded the rights of women and disabled persons)

Resources:

--Civil Rights Digital Library: http://crdl.usg.edu/events/civil_rights_act_1957

--Eisenhower Library: https://www.dwightdeisenhower.com/383/Civil-Rights-Act-of-1957

--Library of Congress: https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/civil-rights-act/civil-rights-era-timeline.html

Photo credit: Photographs of Official Activities of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1953 - 1961, US National Archives .https://catalog.archives.gov/id/7865612 (@USNatArchives)
Saturday
17
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Today is Constitution and Citizenship Day, so we would like to take this opportunity to congratulate all recently naturalized American citizens. We hope an LWV volunteer was present at your naturalization ceremony to assist you with becoming a registered voter.

Learn more:

-- @LWVTexas: https://my.lwv.org/texas/register-vote

-- @librarycongress: https://www.loc.gov/law/help/commemorative-observations/constitution-day.php

-- @uscis: https://www.uscis.gov/citizenship/educators/constitution-day-and-citizenship-day
Saturday
17
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Join us in celebrating the birthday of Mary Burnett Talbert. Mary was an American orator, civil rights activist, and suffragist. She believed that race and gender were unifying factors that could help resolve class issues. Talbert became one of the first women to join the NAACP after its founding in 1909.
#WomenInLeadership

Learn more:
-- https://www.womenofthehall.org/inductee/mary-burnett-talbert (https://www.womenofthehall.org/inductee/mary-burnett-talbert/)
-- https://www.blackpast.org/african-american-history/talbert-mary-b-1866-1923 (https://www.blackpast.org/african-american-history/talbert-mary-b-1866-1923/)
-- https://suffragistmemorial.org/mary-burnett-talbert-september-17-1866-1923 (https://suffragistmemorial.org/mary-burnett-talbert-september-17-1866-1923)
Monday
19
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LWV-CC volunteers will register voters at the Collin College Plano campus on September 19 from 11:00-1:00. LWV-CC VDRs may sign up by logging in and using the volunteer signup on the members-only tab.
Monday
19
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LWV-CC volunteers will register voters at the Collin College Wylie campus on September 19 from 11:00-1:00. LWV-CC VDRs may sign up by logging in and using the volunteer signup on the members-only tab.
Tuesday
20
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September 20 is National Voter Registration Day. Make sure you are registered to vote!
Tuesday
20
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LWV-CC volunteers will register voters at the Collin College McKinney campus on September 20 from 11:00-1:00. LWV-CC VDRs may sign up by logging in and using the volunteer signup on the members-only tab.
Tuesday
20
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LWV-CC volunteers will register voters at the Collin College Frisco campus on September 20 from 11:00-1:00. LWV-CC VDRs may sign up by logging in and using the volunteer signup on the members-only tab.
Friday
23
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Join us in celebrating the birthday of Mary Church Terrell. Mary was a civil-rights activist who championed racial equality and women’s suffrage in the late 19th and early 20th century.

Learn more:
-- PBS (@unladylike2020): https://unladylike2020.com/profile/mary-church-terrell-2
-- Womens History (@womenshistory): https://www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/mary-church-terrell
-- LOC (@libraryofcongress): https://crowd.loc.gov/campaigns/mary-church-terrell-advocate-for-african-americans-and-women
-- NPS (@NPS) - https://www.nps.gov/people/mary-church-terrell.htm
-- https://suffragistmemorial.org/mary-church-terrell/

October, 2022

Saturday
1
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LGBT History Month is celebrated every October in United States since 1994. It was first proposed by Missouri high school history teacher Rodney Wilson, who chose October due to the establishment of National Coming Out Day in the late 1980s on October 11. October also marks the first National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights, which took place in 1979. In addition to LGBT History Month, LGBT Pride Month is also celebrated each year in June to commemorate the Stonewall Riots.
Monday
3
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On Oct 3, 1965, Johnson signs the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) of 1965, which amended the 1952 INA by including a provision stating: No person shall receive any preference or priority or be discriminated against in the issuance of an immigrant visa because of the person‘s race, sex, nationality, place of birth, or place of residence.

Timeline:

1924 - Coolidge signs Johnson-Reed Act
Prevents immigration from Asia and establishes a quotas system

1952 - Truman vetoes McCarran-Walter Act (veto overridden by Congress)
Eliminates Asian exclusion and establishes a preference system for desirable ethnic groups

1965 - Johnson signs Hart-Celler Act
Eliminates policy of limiting immigration based on national origin

Note: See https://immigrationhistory.org/timeline for a description of immigration laws before 1924

Resources:

Johnson-Reed Act: https://history.state.gov/milestones/1921-1936/immigration-act

McCarran-Walter Act: https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/immigration-act

Hart-Celler Act: https://history.house.gov/Historical-Highlights/1951-2000/Immigration-and-Nationality-Act-of-1965

Coolidge’s INA Comments: https://www.coolidgefoundation.org/blog/were-all-in-the-same-boat-now-coolidge-on-immigration

Truman’s INA Comments: https://www.trumanlibrary.gov/public/Immigration_TrumanVeto.pdf

Johnson’s INA Comments:http://www.lbjlibrary.org/lyndon-baines-johnson/timeline/lbj-on-immigration
Thursday
6
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Join us in celebrating the birthday of Thomas Mundy Peterson. Thomas, on March 31, 1870 (one day after the ratification of the 15th Amendment) became the first Black American to vote in a U.S. election.

Learn more:
-- Smithsonian: https://nmaahc.si.edu/object/nmaahc_2015.190
-- NJ State HIstory; https://nj.gov/state/historical/it-happened-here/ihhnj-er-peterson.pdf
-- Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nlC3fsW3rRs
Thursday
6
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Contact lwvcollin@gmail.com for the board meeting Zoom link.
Sunday
9
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Join us in celebrating the birthday of Mary Ann Shadd Cary.

Learn more: https://suffragistmemorial.org/african-american-women-leaders-in-the-suffrage-movement/
Monday
10
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Register to vote by October 10 for the November 8 general election.
Tuesday
11
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Join us in celebrating the birthday of Eleanor Roosevelt born on this day in 1884.

After the League of Women Voters was founded in 1920 – the same year that Franklin D. Roosevelt ran for Vice President – she helped establish its policy agenda. As the League’s Vice President of Legislative Affairs, she lobbied for reforms in Congress and worked tirelessly to strengthen women’s role in politics, helping mobilize women voters through the League’s nonpartisan training and lobbying work.

Learn more:

-- LWV: https://www.lwv.org/blog/eleanor-roosevelt-first-lady-league-leader-pioneer

Photo Credit: LC-USZ62-25812, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division (@librarycongress)

http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3c08091/
Tuesday
11
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National Coming Out Day (NCOD) is an annual LGBTQ awareness day observed on October 11. The day commemorates the Oct. 11, 1987 March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights, which included half a million participants.

Learn more:
-- HRC: https://www.hrc.org/resources/the-history-of-coming-out
-- APA: https://www.apa.org/pi/lgbt/resources/coming-out-day
-- GLAAD: https://www.glaad.org/tags/national-coming-out-day
-- Archive: https://gaycenter.org/archive_item/march-on-washington-for-lesbian-and-gay-rights
-- Image: https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276218
Wednesday
12
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"In 1977 participants at the United Nations International Conference on Discrimination against Indigenous Populations in the Americas proposed that Indigenous Peoples’ Day replace Columbus Day.Indigenous Peoples’ Day recognizes that Native people are the first inhabitants of the Americas, including the lands that later became the United States of America. And it urges Americans to rethink history." https://www.smithsonianmag.com/blogs/national-museum-american-indian/2019/10/11/indigenous-peoples-day-2019

The following states and the District of Columbia observe Native American or Indigenous Peoples’ Day, in place of or in addition to Columbus Day:

-- Alabama

-- Alaska

-- District of Columbia

-- Hawaii

-- Idaho

-- Maine

-- Michigan

-- Minnesota

-- New Mexico

-- North Carolina

-- Oklahoma

-- Oregon

-- South Dakota

-- Vermont

-- Wisconsin


The state of Texas does not currently observer Indiginous People day, but the following local jurisdiction have made the change:

-- City of Austin

-- City of Dallas

-- City of San Antonio

-- County of Bexar



Learn more:

-- Smithsonian Mag: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/blogs/national-museum-american-indian/2019/10/11/indigenous-peoples-day-2019/:

-- PBS: https://www.houstonpublicmedia.org/npr/2019/10/14/769083847/columbus-day-or-indigenous-peoples-day/
Saturday
15
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#OnThisDay, the Supreme Court of the US (SCOTUS) ruled on a bundle of five cases (known as the Civil Rights Cases), and in an 8-1 decision, the court found the Civil Rights Act (CRA) of 1875 to be unconstitutional.

The CRA of 1875 was signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant and was enacted during Reconstruction in response to civil rights violations against African Americans. The act guaranteed equal treatment in public accommodations and transportation. It also outlawing race-based discrimination in jury duty/selection. The five cases heard by SCOTUS included suites brought forth by African Americans who were denied access to segregated facilities.


Timeline:

-- 1866 Johnson vetos CRA of 1866, but veto is overridden by Congress (define citizenship and guaranteed citizens equal protection)
-- 1875 Grant signs CRA of 1875 (guaranteed African Americans equal treatment in public accommodations, public transportation, and prohibited their exclusion from jury service)
-- 1883 SCOTUS rules 7-1 that CRA of 1875 is unconstitutional
-- 1957 Eisenhower signs CRA of 1957 (forms the Civil Rights Commission)
-- 1960 Eisenhower signs CRA of 1960 (guaranteed qualified voters the right to register to vote
-- 1964 Johnson signs CRA of 1964 (prohibited discrimination in public accommodations and employment)
-- 1968 Johnson signs CRA of 1968 (guaranteed equal housing opportunities)
-- 1991 Bush signs the CRA of 1991 (expanded the rights of women and disabled persons)

Resources: SCOTUS Ruling:
http://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/usrep/usrep109/usrep109003/usrep109003.pdf
Library of Congress: https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/civil-rights-act/legal-events-timeline.html
Wednesday
19
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The League of Women Voters of Texas, a nonpartisan political organization, was formed on October 19, 1919, at San Antonio, when the Texas Equal Suffrage Association was dissolved to reorganize for a new purposehttps://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/wel05
Saturday
22
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Christia Daniel Adair. Christia was an NAACP leader from Houston, worked for full suffrage and was one of the first black women to vote in a Democratic primary after the Supreme Court struck down Texas‘ white primary law in 1944. As executive secretary of the Houston NAACP for 12 years, she and others desegregated the Houston airport, public libraries, city buses, and department store dressing rooms. Despite official harassment, Adair and others rebuilt the Houston NAACP chapter, which grew to 10,000 members.

Learn more:
https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fad19
Sunday
23
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Nina Otero-Warren. Nina was a civil rights leader, a suffragist, and an advocate for bilingual education.

In 1917, Otero-Warren was selected by Alice Paul to head the New Mexico chapter of the Congressional Union (precursor to the National Woman’s Party). She insisted that suffrage literature be published in both English and Spanish, in order to reach the widest audience.

She was Superintendent of Public Schools in Santa Fe County from 1918 to 1929, working to improve the conditions in rural Hispano and Native American communities. Otero-Warren argued that both Spanish and English be allowed in schools, despite the federal mandate of English-only. Despite losing her political campaign to run for a seat in the US House of Representatives, she remained politically and socially active, and served as the Chairman of New Mexico’s Board of Health; an executive board member of the American Red Cross; and director of an adult literacy program in New Mexico for the Works Projects Administration.

Learn more: https://www.nps.gov/people/nina-oter-warren.htm
Monday
24
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Vote early from October 24 - November 4. Get a personalized sample ballot and compare candidates‘ responses to LWV questions at www.vote411.org.
Friday
28
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October 28 is the last day to apply for a ballot by mail for the November 8 general election.
Friday
28
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Vote Early Day is a reminder that you have the option to vote early in the upcoming election. Be a voter!

November, 2022

Wednesday
2
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Jessie Daniel Ames. Jessie was a suffragist and the founder and first president of the League of Women Voters of Texas.

Learn more: https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fam06
Thursday
3
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Contact lwvcollin@gmail.com for the board meeting Zoom link.
Friday
4
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Vote early from October 24 - November 4. Get a personalized sample ballot and compare candidates‘ responses to LWV questions at www.vote411.org.
Tuesday
8
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Be a voter in the November 8 general election. Get a personalized sample ballot and compare candidates‘ responses to LWV questions at www.vote411.org.
Friday
11
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Veterans Day, also known as Armistice Day or Rememberance Day in other countries which fought in the First World War, is commemorated on the 11th of November, marking the armistice signed between the Allies and Central Powers. The armistice came into effect at 11am: the eleventh hour, of the eleventh day, of the eleventh month in 1918. Formerly known as Armistice Day in the United States, the name was changed to Veterans Day in 1954 to honor all those who have served and continue to serve in the United States Armed Forces.
Saturday
12
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Elizabeth Cady Staton (1st generation suffragists). She was born in 1815 and was one of the speakers and organizers of the Seneca Falls Convention. Elizabeth was a co-founder of the National Woman Suffrage Associate (NWSA), which would later merge with the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) in 1890. After the ratification of the 19th Amendment, the NAWSA evolved into the League of Women Voters (LWV) in 1920.

** Mother of Harriet Stanton Blatch (2nd generation suffragist) **
Learn more:

-- NWHM: https://www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/lucy-stone

-- PBS: https://www.pbs.org/video/the-vote-part-1-3kph5d (11 minutes in)

-- LOC: https://www.loc.gov/resource/rbnawsa.n8361/?sp=7 (p. 7)

-- Seneca Falls Convention:
Monday
21
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#OnThisDay, Bush signed the 1991 Civil Rights Act (CRA), which provided the right to trial by jury on discrimination claims. It also added provisions to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that expanded the rights of women and disabled persons. #CivilRights

Timeline:
-- 1866 Johnson vetos CRA of 1866, but veto is overridden by Congress (define citizenship and guaranteed citizens equal protection)
-- 1875 Grant signs CRA of 1875 (guaranteed African Americans equal treatment in public accommodations, public transportation, and prohibited their exclusion from jury service)
-- 1883 SCOTUS rules 7-1 that CRA of 1875 is unconstitutional
-- 1957 Eisenhower signs CRA of 1957 (forms the Civil Rights Commission)
-- 1960 Johnson signs CRA of 1960 (guaranteed qualified voters the right to register to vote
-- 1964 Johnson signs CRA of 1964 (prohibited discrimination in public accommodations and employment)
-- 1968 Johnson signs CRA of 1968 (guaranteed equal housing opportunities)
-- 1991 Bush signs the CRA of 1991 (expanded the rights of women and disabled persons)

Resources:
Bush Library: https://bush41library.tamu.edu/archives/public-papers/3660
Library of Congress: https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/civil-rights-act/legal-events-timeline.html
Saturday
26
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Sojourner Truth (1797-1883) was an American abolitionist and women‘s rights activist. Born into slavery in Ulster County, New York, Truth escaped with her infant daughter to freedom in 1826. After going to court to recover her son, in 1828 she became the first black woman to win such a case against a white man. She gave herself the name Sojourner Truth in 1843 after she became convinced that God had called her to "testify the hope that was in me." Truth‘s best-known speech was famously delivered extemporaneously in 1851 at the Ohio Women‘s Rights Convention in which she demanded equal human rights for all women as well as for all blacks. During the Civil War, Truth helped recruit black troops for the Union Army and began riding in Washington DC‘s streetcars to force their desegregation. Following the war, Truth lobbied the federal government for seven years attempting to secure land grands for formerly enslaved persons, though this effort was ultimately unsuccessful. A lifelong radical, Truth continued her activism on behalf of women‘s rights, prison reform, and against capital punishment until the time of her death in 1883.
Wednesday
30
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Shirley Chisholm (1924-2005). Shirley was an educator, activist, and politician who achieved a number of historic 1sts
-- 1968 1st black woman elected to the Congress
-- 1972 1st woman to run for the Democratic presidential nomination
-- 1972 1st African American to run for President of the US

Learn more: https://www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/shirley-chisholm

December, 2022

Thursday
1
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On Dec 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for sitting in the front of a bus. Her arrest set off a chain of events that led to a Supreme Court decision banning segregation on public transportation.

Learn more:

-- LOC article: https://www.loc.gov/item/today-in-history/december-01/

-- LOC recording: https://www.loc.gov/item/prn-19-107/?loclr=eaue
Friday
2
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Debra Anne Haaland. Debra and Sharice Davids were the first two Native American women elected to the U.S Congress. Haaland is a member of the Laguna Pueblo people.

Learn more:

-- National Geographic Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5T_s36-1hms
-- US House: https://haaland.house.gov/about
Tuesday
6
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Patsy Takemoto Mink. Patsy was the first woman of color elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.

Learn more:
-- Smithsonian Mag: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/how-women-got-vote-far-more-complex-story-history-textbooks-reveal-180971869/
-- House History: https://history.house.gov/People/detail/18329
-- NWHF: https://www.womenofthehall.org/inductee/patsy-takemoto-mink/
-- NWHM: https://www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/patsy-mink
Friday
9
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Join us in celebrating the birthday of Titus Howard Mundine, who was the 1st Texas Legislator to propose enfranchisement of women and blacks.

"Every person, without distinction of sex, who shall have arrived at the age of twenty-one years...shall be deemed a qualified elector." -- Titus H. Mundine

Learn More:
-- https://lrl.texas.gov/legeLeaders/members/memberDisplay.cfm?memberID=5124
-- Titus – http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fmuvf
-- Woman Suffrage – http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/viw01
Monday
12
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Join us in celebrating the birthday of Eliza Eubanks Peterson Johnson. Eliza was a suffragist and civil-rights activist.

Learn more:

-- TSHA: https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fjohn

-- TSHA: https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/viw01

-- Austin Library: http://www.austinlibrary.com/ahc/suffrage/early.htm
Wednesday
14
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Marie Louise Bottineau Baldwin. Marie was a suffragist and lawyer who worked as an advocate for the Ojibwa/Chippewa Nation in Minnesota and North Dakota.

Learn more:

-- Hidden Figures: https://www.brandywine.org/museum/hidden-figures-suffrage-movement

-- National Parks Service: https://www.nps.gov/people/marie-louise-bottineau-baldwin.htm

-- MNHS: https://www.mnhs.org/historycenter/activities/museum/votes-for-women/profiles/marie-baldwin

-- National Archive: https://prologue.blogs.archives.gov/2020/04/02/19th-amendment-at-100-mary-louise-bottineau-baldwin/

-- LWV: https://my.lwv.org/california/diablo-valley/meet-suffragist-marie-louise-bottineau-baldwin
Thursday
15
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Ruza Wenclawska (also known as Rose Winslow). Rose was a Polish-American suffragist and trade union organizer. She was a member of the National Women‘s Party and fought for the rights of immigrant and working-class women. Along with Alice Paul, she participated in a hunger strike to bring attention to the suffrage movement.

Learn more:

-- Hidden Figures: https://www.brandywine.org/museum/hidden-figures-suffrage-movement

-- LOC: https://www.loc.gov/collections/women-of-protest/articles-and-essays/selected-leaders-of-the-national-womans-party/officers-and-national-organizers/

-- Turning Point: https://suffragistmemorial.org/rose-winslow-d-1977

-- Historical Snapshot: https://historicalsnaps.com/2018/03/19/rose-winslow-talks-about-her-hunger-strike
Saturday
17
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Harriet Taylor Upton. Harriet was a founding member of the National League of Women Voters and the first woman to become a vice-chairman of the Republican National Committee.

Learn more:

-- PBS: https://www.pbs.org/video/the-vote-part-1-3kph5d (53 mins in)

-- Upton House: http://www.uptonhouse.org/HTayor.html

-- Ohio History: https://ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Harriet_T._Upton
Thursday
29
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Martha Goodwin Tunstall. Martha became the vice-president from Texas of the newly-formed National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA).

Learn more: https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/ftuns
Friday
30
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Jane McCallum. Jane was the first vice president of the League of Women Voters of Texas. She had the longest term as the Secretary of State of Texas.

Learn more:

-- TSHA: https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fmc07

-- Texas Secretary as State: https://www.sos.state.tx.us/about/history.shtml
Saturday
31
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Every even year inJanuary VDRs need to renew their certification


VDRs serve for two-year terms expiring on December 31 of even-numbered years.

https://my.lwv.org/texas/volunteer-deputy-registrar

January, 2023

Sunday
1
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First day to apply for a ballot by mail using Application for a Ballot by Mail (ABBM) or Federal Postcard Application (FPCA) https://www.sos.state.tx.us/elections/voter/important-election-dates.shtml
Tuesday
3
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Helen Edmunds Moore. Helen was a nurse, suffragist, and a member of the 41, 42, and 44th legislatures. In the 44 Legislature, she was the only woman.

Learn more:
https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/moore-helen-edmunds
Tuesday
3
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Lucretia Coffin Mott. Lucretia was a suffragist and human rights activist. She was one of the organizers of the 1st Woman’s Rights Convention Seneca Falls, N.Y.

Learn more:

NWHM: https://www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/lucretia-mott

PBS: Video: https://www.pbs.org/video/the-vote-part-1-3kph5d/

NPS: https://www.nps.gov/wori/learn/historyculture/lucretia-mott.htm
Friday
20
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Harriet Staton Blatch (2nd generation suffragists).
Voting rights was a family affair

** Daughter of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1st generation suffragist)

She founded the Equality League of Self-Supporting Women, later called the Women‘s Political Union, whose membership was based on working women, both professional and industrial. The Equality League initiated the practice of holding suffrage parades and organized the first open-air suffrage rallies in thirty years. As many as 25,000 people marched in these parades.

Learn more:
-- PBS: https://www.pbs.org/video/the-vote-part-1-3kph5d/ (28 minutes in)
Saturday
21
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#OnThisDay the Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) ruled on the Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission case and made a controversial decision that reversed existing campaign finance restrictions and enabled corporations and other outside groups to spend unlimited funds on elections. #DarkMoney

"Prevention of improper corporate influence in the electoral process...is a pillar of our modern democracy" -- LWV Amicus Brief #DarkMoney

"Voters are supposed to be at the center of our political process. For more than two centuries, America’s constitutional democracy has been moving in the direction of broader enfranchisement and more meaningful political participation by American citizens. After the Civil War, the 15th Amendment to the Constitution guaranteed the right to vote to citizens regardless of race or color. The 19th Amendment provided voting rights to women, the 24th to poor citizens and the 26th to young adults.
On the other hand, our Constitution does not reflect a similar solicitude for corporate participation; indeed our constitutional history reflects a growing concern over the influence of corporations, and the distinction between the legal protections afforded to living persons and corporations has been part of our constitutional law from the Founding." -- LWV Commentary on Citizens United


LWVUS Amicus Brief: https://www.lwv.org/sites/default/files/Amicus_cfr.CitizenUnited.pdf
LWVUS Commentary on Citizens United: https://www.lwv.org/money-politics/league-commentary-citizens-united-v-fec-case-supreme-court
Brennan Institute: https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/research-reports/citizens-united-explained
Wednesday
25
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Charles Curtis, of Kaw, Osage, and Pottawatomie ancestry. Curtis was sworn in as the U.S. Senator from Kansas. Charles was also the 1st person of color and 1st person of Native American ancestry to hold the office of vice president under President Hoover.

Learn more:

-- Senate History: https://www.senate.gov/about/officers-staff/vice-president/VP_Charles_Curtis.htm

-- Kansas Historical Society: https://www.kshs.org/kansapedia/charles-curtis/12029
Wednesday
25
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Maud Wood Park. Park was the 1st president of the National League of Women Voters.

Learn more:

-- Suffragist Memorial: https://suffragistmemorial.org/november-2015-suffragist-of-the-month/

-- Harvard: https://www.radcliffe.harvard.edu/schlesinger-library/collection/papers-maud-wood-park-in-womans-rights-collection

-- LOC: https://www.loc.gov/resource/rbnawsa.n8361/?sp=8

February, 2023

Wednesday
1
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Black History Month is celebrated in the United States and Canada each February. Black History Month traces its origins to Negro History Week which was first created in 1926 with the week chosen to coincide with the birthdays of Abraham Lincoln (February 12th) and Frederick Douglass (February 14th). An annual monthlong celebration of black history was later proposed by students and educators at Kent State University in 1969, and adopted one year later. By the mid-1970s, Black History Month was celebrated across the United States and officially recognized by US President Gerald Ford in 1976. Originally intended to celebrate black history and culture in the United States, Black History Month has since spread to Canada, as well as the United Kingdom, Ireland, and the Netherlands, where it is celebrated in October.
Friday
3
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#OnThisDay in 1870, the 15th Amendment, which granted black men the right to vote, was ratified. Unfortunately, Southern states continued to disenfranchise black voters through the use of poll taxes, literacy tests, threats of physical harm, etc. Therefore, the promise of the 15th Amendment was not fully realized until the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965--almost a century later.

The amendment was passed (proposed) by Congress on February 26, 1869, and ratified on February 3, 1870.

Learn more:

-- National Archives: https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/amendments-11-27

-- LOC: http://www.loc.gov/rr//program/bib/ourdocs/15thamendment.html

-- Teaching resources: https://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/elections/voting-rights-african-americans.html
Thursday
9
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Juanita Jewel Craft. Juanita and Lulu Belle White of Houston organized 182 branches of the NAACP in Texas over a period of eleven years. Following the Smith v. Allwright ruling, in 1944 Juanita became the first black woman in Dallas County to vote in the Democratic Party primary. In 1946, she was the first black woman deputized in the state to collect the poll tax. Juanita was also a member of the League of Women Voters of Texas.


The Smith v. Allwright U.S. case ended the white primary.

Learn More:
-- http://www.juanitacrafthouse.org/
-- TSHA: https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fcr59
-- TxPolProject - Smith v. Allwright: https://texaspolitics.utexas.edu/archive/html/vce/features/0503_01/smith.html
Thursday
9
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Join us in celebrating the birthday of Lawrence Aaron Nixon. Lawrence...

The Smith v. Allwright case ended the white primary, which suppressed the Black vote.

Learn More:
-- @TSHA: https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fni10
-- @TxPolProject - White Primary: https://texaspolitics.utexas.edu/archive/html/vce/features/0503_01/smith.html
Friday
10
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Adella Hunt Logan.

Learn more:
-- Hidden Figures: https://www.brandywine.org/museum/hidden-figures-suffrage-movement
Saturday
11
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Nellie May Quande. “In 1913, Nellie Quander, president of the nation‘s oldest Black sorority, Alpha Kappa Alpha, wrote to Alice Paul, chair for a major upcoming Washington, D.C., parade, planned to attract national attention for the cause on the day before the inauguration of President Woodrow Wilson. "We do not wish to enter if we must meet with discrimination on account of race affiliation," Quander wrote. "Can you assign us to a desirable place in the college women‘s section?”

Learn more:

-- LOC: https://www.loc.gov/exhibitions/women-fight-for-the-vote/about-this-exhibition/new-tactics-for-a-new-generation-1890-1915/new-tactics-and-renewed-confrontation/howard-university-sorority-seeks-assurances-of-nondiscrimination

-- Smithsonian: https://womenshistory.si.edu/news/2020/08/19suffragestories-countdown-stories-14-10

-- Facing History:

https://facingtoday.facinghistory.org/suffrage-and-sisterhood-the-origins-and-impact-of-black-sororities
Sunday
12
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Fannie Barrier Williams. Fannie was an educator, political activist, and women’s rights advocate. In 1907, she was the only Black woman to eulogize Susan B. Anthony at the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) convention. Also, she helped found the NAACP in 1909.
Learn more:

-- BlackPast: https://www.blackpast.org/african-american-history/williams-fannie-barrier-1855-1944/

-- ISU: https://awpc.cattcenter.iastate.edu/directory/frances-barrier-williams/

-- RRLC: https://rrlc.org/winningthevote/biographies/fannie-barrier-williams/

-- SPC: https://www.splcenter.org/news/2019/06/01/weekend-read-challenging-whitewashed-history-womens-suffrage/

-- LOC: https://www.loc.gov/exhibitions/women-fight-for-the-vote/about-this-exhibition/more-to-the-movement/fannie-barrier-williams/
Sunday
12
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#OnThisDay in 1909, the NAACP was founded. The NAACP is the largest and most pre-eminent civil rights organization in the nation.

Mission: To ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination.

Learn more:

-- NAACP: https://naacp.org/nations-premier-civil-rights-organization/

-- TSHA: https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/national-association-for-the-advancement-of-colored-people

-- UW: https://depts.washington.edu/moves/NAACP_intro.shtml
Tuesday
14
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Anna Howard Shaw.

Learn more:
-- PBS: https://www.pbs.org/video/the-vote-part-1-3kph5d/ (1 hr in)
Tuesday
14
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Charlotta Spears Bass, who was born on this day in 1874. Charlotta was an educator, newspaper publisher, civil-rights and voting-rights activist. She was also the first Black woman to own and operate a newspaper in the United States and the first Black woman nominated for Vice President.

Learn more:
-- NPS: https://www.nps.gov/people/charlottabass.htm
-- Black Past; https://www.blackpast.org/african-american-history/bass-charlotta-1879-1969/
-- South California Library: https://oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/tf6c60052d/
Tuesday
14
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#OnThisDay in 1920, the League of Women Voters was founded. Carrie Chapman Catt shared the following about the founding: "Is the (League) political? Certainly, but not partisan. Its members are as free as other women to join and vote with the party of their choice. They make no pledge otherwise in joining the League."

Mission: Empowering voters. Defending democracy.

Learn more: https://www.lwv.org/league-women-voters-through-decades
Wednesday
15
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Join us in celebrating the birthday of Susan B. Anthony (1st generation suffragists). She was born in 1820. Susan was a co-founder of the National Woman Suffrage Associate (NWSA), which would later merge with the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) in 1890. After the ratification of the 19th Amendment, the NAWSA evolved into the League of Women Voters (LWV) in 1920.

**Susan died in 1906, 14 years before women were given the right to vote with the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920. **
Learn more:

-- NWHM: https://www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/susan-b-anthony

-- @susanbhouse: https://susanb.org/her-life/

-- LOC: https://www.loc.gov/resource/rbnawsa.n8361/?sp=7 (p. 7)

-- Seneca Falls Convention:
Friday
17
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#OnThisDay in 1929, LULAC was founded. LULAC is the oldest and largest continuously active Latino political association in the US.

Mission: To advance the economic condition, educational attainment, political influence, housing, health and civil rights of the Hispanic population of the United States.

Learn more: https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/wel01
Monday
20
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Join us commemorating the life of Frederick Douglass (1818 - 1895)."Frederick was one of the few men present at the woman‘s rights convention held at Seneca Falls, New York, in July 1848.

Learn more:

-- Blackpast: https://www.blackpast.org/african-american-history/1888-frederick-douglass-woman-suffrage/

-- Smithsonian: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/hidden-history-anna-murray-douglass-180968324/

#BHM
Wednesday
22
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Zitkala-Sa (Red Bird). "Zitkala-Ša joined the Society of American Indians, a group founded in 1911 with the purpose of preserving traditional Native American culture while also lobbying for full American citizenship."

Learn more: https://www.nps.gov/people/zitkala-sa.htm

Photo: https://npg.si.edu/object/npg_S_NPG.79.26?destination=edan-search/default_search%3Freturn_all%3D1%26edan_q%3DZitkala%2520Sa
Friday
24
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Rosalie Gardiner Jones. In December of 1912, over 200 women joined Rosalie for parts of a 140-mile march from New York City to Albany to support women‘s suffrage. During the march, the women stopped to hold open-air meetings and distribute pamphlets in communities along the way.

Learn More:

-- PBS Doc: https://www.pbs.org/video/the-vote-part-1-3kph5d/ (1 hr 16 mins in)

-- New York Heritage: https://nyheritage.org/exhibits/recognizing-womens-right-vote/%E2%80%9Cgeneral%E2%80%9D-rosalie-jones-and-suffrage-hikes

-- NPS: https://www.nps.gov/people/dr-general-rosalie-jones.htm
Sunday
26
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#OnThisDay in 1869, Congress passed (proposed) the 15th Amendment, which granted Black male citizens the right to vote.“The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”

The amendment was passed (proposed) by Congress on February 26, 1869, and ratified on February 3, 1870.

Learn more:

-- National Archives: https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/amendments-11-27

-- LOC: http://www.loc.gov/rr//program/bib/ourdocs/15thamendment.html
-- Teaching resources: https://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/elections/voting-rights-african-americans.html

March, 2023

Wednesday
1
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#OnThisDay, President Ulysses S. Grant, signed the Civil Rights Act (CRA) of 1875. The CRA was enacted during the Reconstruction era in response to civil rights violations against African Americans. The act provided for equal treatment in public accommodations and transportation. It also outlawing race-based discrimination in jury service.

Over the ensuing years, African Americans began suing businesses that denied them access to segregated facilities. On Oct 15, 1883, the Supreme Court of the US (SCOTUS) heard a group of five cases (known as the Civil Rights Cases), and in an 8-1 decision, struck down the CRA of 1875 as unconstitutional.
Timeline:

-- 1866 Johnson vetos CRA of 1866, but veto is overridden by Congress (define citizenship and guaranteed citizens equal protection)

-- 1875 Grant signs CRA of 1875 (guaranteed African Americans equal treatment in public accommodations, public transportation, and prohibited their exclusion from jury service)

-- 1883 SCOTUS rules 7-1 that CRA of 1875 is unconstitutional

-- 1957 Eisenhower signs CRA of 1957 (forms the Civil Rights Commission)

-- 1960 Eisenhower signs CRA of 1960 (guaranteed qualified voters the right to register to vote

-- 1964 Johnson signs CRA of 1964 (prohibited discrimination in public accommodations and employment)

-- 1968 Johnson signs CRA of 1968 (guaranteed equal housing opportunities)

-- 1991 Bush signs the CRA of 1991 (expanded the rights of women and disabled persons)


Resource:
-- US House of Rep: https://history.house.gov/Historical-Highlights/1851-1900/The-Civil-Rights-Act-of-1875
-- Library of Congress: https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/civil-rights-act/legal-events-timeline.html
-- Grant‘s Memoirs: https://www.gutenberg.org/files/4367/4367-h/4367-h.htm
Wednesday
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Women‘s History Month celebrates the everyday contributions of women across the world to events in history and contemporary society. It is celebrated during March in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia, in connection with International Women‘s Day on March 8th. Women‘s History Month traces its origins to the United States, where it was first designated in 1987. Since then the tradition has spread to other countries around the world.
Friday
3
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The "Woman Suffrage Procession" was the first suffragist parade in Washington, DC. Organized by the suffragist Alice Paul for the National American Woman Suffrage Association, it saw thousands of suffragists marching down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, DC on Monday, March 3, 1913. Presaging the circumstances surrounding the 2017 Women‘s March just over 100 years later, the 1913 event was scheduled on the day before President Woodrow Wilson‘s inauguration to "march in a spirit of protest against the present political organization of society, from which women are excluded," as the official program stated. While studying in England, Paul had heard the British suffragist Christabel Pankhurst speak and joined the Women‘s Social and Political Union, being jailed a number of times in the process. She returned to the US in 1910 and continued to campaign for women‘s rights leading to the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920.
Tuesday
7
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Advocate of women‘s rights.
In February 1912 Brackenridge was elected president of the newly organized San Antonio Equal Franchise Society. The formation of this society stimulated interest throughout the state, and delegates from seven Texas cities met in San Antonio and organized the Texas Woman Suffrage Association in April 1913. Eleanor Brackenridge held the office of president for one year and then became honorary president.
https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fbr04
Tuesday
7
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March 7, 1965: In the Selma to Montgomery March, around 600 civil rights marchers walk to Selma, Alabama to Montgomery—the state’s capital—in protest of black voter suppression. Local police block and brutally attack them. After successfully fighting in court for their right to march, Martin Luther King and other civil rights leaders lead two more marches and finally reach Montgomery on March 25.
Wednesday
8
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Anna Murray Douglass born in 1813. Anna was the wife of Frederick Douglas, but more than that, she was a participant in the activities necessary to ensure voting rights for all Americans.

Learn more:
-- @SmithsonianMagazine: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/hidden-history-anna-murray-douglass-180968324/
-- @USAToday:https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2020/07/06/frederick-douglass-first-wife-anna-murray-made-his-work-possible/5382922002/
-- @librarycongress: https://www.loc.gov/item/mfd.02007/
Wednesday
8
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International Women‘s Day traces its origins to the women‘s rights movement of the early 20th century, having been first proposed by German campaigner Clara Zetkin at an international conference in Copenhagen. The day is a celebration of the social, economic, political and cultural achievements of women worldwide. The annual campaign calls for gender parity and raises funds to support initiatives towards this goal.
Friday
10
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Harriet Tubman (1822-1913) was never far from the struggle for equal rights and human liberation throughout her long life, from the work on the Underground Railroad for which she is famous, to her later years as an activist in the women‘s suffrage movement in the early 20th century. Born into slavery in Dorchester County, Maryland, Tubman escaped to Philadelphia in 1849 before immediately returning to rescue her family. Tubman would make some 13 return trips to the South to liberate family, friends, and relatives - at great personal risk to herself - guiding them to freedom in the northern United States and British North America (present-day Canada) using a clandestine network of anti-slavery activists and safe houses to facilitate the journey. Tubman later helped the abolitionist John Brown recruit troops for his 1859 raid on Harper‘s Ferry, and helped lead multiple attacks on Confederate plantations and infrastructure during the Civil War. Toward the end of her life, Tubman joined the campaign for women‘s suffrage. With the struggle against slavery still in living memory, Tubman moved audiences around the country with tales of her heroic actions before and after the Civil War, offering these sacrifices as evidence and living proof that women deserved the same rights as men.
Wednesday
15
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#OnThisDay in 1918, the Texas House (during the 36 legislative sessions) passed HB-105 by a vote of 83-34. The bill granted women the right to vote in (white) Texas Primaries.

The bill was passed by the Texas Senate on March 21, 1918 by a vote of 18-4.
Governor William P. Hobby signed the bill into law on March 26, 1918.

Learn more:
-- https://lrl.texas.gov/whatsNew/client/index.cfm/2018/3/20/Votes-for-Women-The-100th-Anniversary-of-Texas-Womens-Suffrage
Friday
17
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Bayard Rustin (1912-1987) was an American civil rights activist who worked as an influential organizer and behind-the-scenes adviser to many causes throughout the civil rights era. Rustin began his organizing career working alongside fellow activist A. Philip Randolph on the March on Washington Movement in the early 1940s, which campaigned for the desegregation of the US armed forces. Rustin later played a central organizing role in other key civil rights actions such as the Freedom Rides and the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, where Martin Luther King - whom Rustin had schooled on methods of non-violence and helped elevate to his leadership position in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference - gave his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. Rustin continued his career as an activist following the passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s, promoting the unionization of African American workers and working internationally to aid war refugees from Vietnam and Cambodia while raising awareness to the ongoing plight of Jews living in the Soviet Union. A gay man who chose to play a supporting role in the Civil Rights Movement due to public criticisms of his homosexuality, Rustin spent his final years working on behalf of LGBT causes during the 1980s.
Sunday
19
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Minnie Fisher Cunningham born in 1882. Minnie was the first Executive Secretary of the League of Women Voters. The Texas native was also the first female pharmacy student at the University of Texas and the first woman to run for the Texas Senate. Members of the Minnie Fisher Cunningham Society continue empowering voters and defending democracy into the future by naming the League in their wills for a bequest.

Learn More:

-- LWV: https://my.lwv.org/texas/leave-legacy-minnie-fisher-cunningham-society

-- Suffrage Petition: https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/tx-woman-suffrage-petition

--TSHA: https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/cunningham-minnie-fisher

-- PBS: https://www.houstonpublicmedia.org/articles/shows/2015/12/19/43918/texas-originals-minnie-fisher-cunningham/
Tuesday
21
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#OnThisDay in 1918, the Texas Senate (during the 36 legislative sessions) passed HB-105 by a vote of 18-4. The bill granted women the right to vote in (white) Texas Primaries.

The bill was firsts passed in the TX House on March 15, 1918 by a vote of 84-34.
Governor William P. Hobby signed the bill into law on March 26, 1918.

Learn more:
-- https://lrl.texas.gov/whatsNew/client/index.cfm/2018/3/20/Votes-for-Women-The-100th-Anniversary-of-Texas-Womens-Suffrage
Tuesday
21
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The 21st of March is the anniversary of events in 1960 when police opened fire and killed 69 people at a peaceful demonstration against apartheid laws in Sharpeville, South Africa. The United Nations General Assembly proclaimed an annual observation of the day in 1966.

"We must all work harder to repair the fissures and polarization that are so prevalent in our societies today. We must nurture mutual understanding and invest in making diversity a success. And we must counter and reject political figures who exploit differences for electoral gain." — UN Secretary-General António Guterres”

Learn more:

-- About End Racial Discrimination Day: https://www.un.org/en/observances/end-racism-day

-- History of the League and the UN: https://www.lwv.org/sites/default/files/The%2520League%2520and%2520the%2520United%2520Nations.pdf

-- Role of the UN Observer: https://www.lwv.org/sites/default/files/2019-12/LWVUS%20United%20Nations%20Observer%20Role.pdf

-- Contact the UN Observers at unobserver@lwv.org.


Also World Poetry Day: https://www.un.org/en/events/poetryday/
Wednesday
22
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#OnThisDay in 1972, Congress passed the ERA, but it remains 1 state short of ratification.
Thursday
23
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#OnThis day in 1971, the 26th Amendment was passed by Congress. This amendment was enacted in response to Vietnam War protests, which argued that soldiers who were old enough to fight for their country should be granted the right to vote.‘

The amendment was passed by Congress (proposed to the states) on March 23, 1971, and ratified on July 1, 1971.

Resources:
https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/amendments-11-27

January, 2029

Friday
19
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Join us in commemorating the birthday of Oveta Culp Hobby. Oveta was the first Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, first Director of the Women‘s Army Corps, and a Chairperson of the Board of the Houston Post. Her husband, William Hobby, was the Texas Governor who signed the law allowing women in Texas to vote in a primary election.